Planning and conducting interviews, selection interviews, reprimand interviews, clinical & psychological interviews, grievance interview, exit interviews, preparation with reference to welcome, introduction and thanks.
‘The greatest fool may ask more questions than the wisest man can answer’.
Before meeting for an interview, both the interviewer and the interviewee have to make planning and preparation. Many job interviews are failures because either the applicants or the interviewer lack the skills of planning for them. The interviewer must have clear and detailed information about the post for which the candidates are to be interviewed. He should be in a position to tell the candidate the working conditions, details of job operations and other responsibilities that the job entails. He has to make proper seating arrangement for the candidates in such a way that they may feel relaxed in the waiting room before facing the interviewer. He should know what type of candidate is required for the job. He must have the bio-data of all the candidates who might attend the interview in order to plan and conduct them.
Similarly, the applicants too must prepare themselves for the interview situation. He has to know his own abilities in carrying out the responsibilities of the post for which he applies. He has to ask himself whether he really desires to do that work and if it is suitable for his talents. Secondly, he has to know the organization in which he seeks the job. He also has to prepare himself for the probable questions, which could potentially be asked in the interview.
Guidelines for preparation of the interviewer:
Guidelines for the interviewee’s conduct at the interview
The winning grace of Interviewing
The precise nature of the questions you ask will be determined initially by the purpose and the research you have done, but it is equally as important that you listen to people’s answers and adjust your line of questioning. Though, there is plenty of often quite prescriptive advice available on interviewing techniques, but trial and error is the way most trainee journalists feel their way through their first interviews. Experiment with different approaches and see what works for you in different circumstances. Journalists have to be comfortable speaking to all sorts of people from millionaires to the homeless. So, the main asset of a journalist during interviews is being curious about people and allowing enough time.
Conversation is the key to good interviewing. Even the briefest interview should involve the techniques of conversation: listening as well as talking, engaging with what is being said rather than just waiting for a gap to fill with your next question, maintaining eye contact in face to face interviews, and encouraging the interviewee through sounds and gestures.
Interviewing celebrities and famous personalities require much tactics and careful preparations. Unless you are accusing the interviewee of their wrongdoing, you need to establish a rapport between him and yourself. First impressions are important so do not be late and dress appropriately. Nonverbal communication is important, so show interest by making eye contact without staring or nodding. Give verbal reassurance that the interviewee is not speaking into a vacuum-laugh at their jokes, sympathize with their troubles and use phrases like ‘really’? But don’t overdo it. Learn to listen; interrupting their flow only if they are digressing too much and you are on deadline. Keep your eyes as well as your ears open because you might discover a visual clue to the interviewee’s character or a visual prompt for an unusual question. Clothes, hair, tattoos, pictures on the wall, books on the shelves, an unusual plant, and the view from the window-all might spark off a question and lead to the discovery of a different angle.
KINDS OF INTERVIEWS
When an employee in an organization is found to be violating rules, reprimand interviews are conducted so as to ask the employee for explanations and issue warnings.
Unless the employee’s misconduct is very serious, after the investigation the supervisor will usually decide that the first disciplinary action given to an employee should be an oral reprimand. This reprimand should be given in a private interview and the supervisor should note the details of the discussion. The supervisor and the employee should agree on an action plan, preferably in writing, to ensure the poor performance is corrected or the misconduct is not repeated. The supervisor should arrange to meet with the employee to follow-up on the action plan.
The next step of progressive discipline is the written reprimand. This is a letter, which describes the misconduct and the performance, or behavior, which is expected of the employee. It usually contains a warning that further misconduct will lead to more severe disciplinary action. The supervisor should give two copies of the letter to the employee with instructions to read and initial one copy and return it to the supervisor for the Employee file. Should the employee not return the copy to the supervisor within a reasonable length of time, the supervisor should note this on another copy of the letter and forward it to Human Resources.
The supervisor and the employee should agree on an action plan to ensure the poor performance or behavior is corrected. Again, the supervisor should arrange to meet with the employee to follow-up on the action plan.
The supervisor should review any written reprimand with the Staff Relations section of Human Resources before giving it to the employee.
Corrective Disciplinary Actions:
For repeated but relatively minor incidents of substandard performance, misconduct, or rule violations, corrective counseling and discipline should be progressive. The normal sequence of action is:
Depending on the severity of the case, the action may begin at any of these steps. Any action involving suspension or discharge requires prior review by the Director of Human Resources or his/her designated representative.
Initial Discussion: Normally, initial disciplinary action should be in the form of an oral discussion, especially for minor rule violations. If it appears that an employee has failed to perform his/her work or conduct him/herself according to requirements, the supervisor should first talk to the employee about the matter and informally inquire further into the situation. If facts indicate that the employee may have been at fault, the supervisor should discuss the matter with him/her and the expectations of the supervisor or steps needed for improvement.
Oral Warning: If the initial discussion fails to produce the desired results, an oral warning is normally the next step. With an oral warning, the supervisor should again discuss the matter with the employee. If the supervisor wishes, he/she may call on another person to be present as a witness, preferably another supervisor. The employee should understand the gravity of the situation. With an oral warning, the employee is put on notice that disciplinary action will be forthcoming if there is a repeated violation or if the situation does not improve. Supervisors should maintain a complete and accurate written notation of the warning.
Written Reprimand: A Written Reprimand involves both a formal interview with the employee by the supervisor and an official memorandum to the employee that emphasizes the negative effect of the employee’s conduct or work performance on his/her record. If the immediate supervisor does not have the authority to discharge, then such an interview should be conducted by or with the permission of the department official who does have discharge authority.
A written reprimand should include: names of everyone involved, dates, description of incident or unsatisfactory performance, witnesses (if any), and action taken. Also included should be action that will be taken if satisfactory improvement does not occur. The reprimanding official should sign it. It should also bear or request the employee’s comments, if any, and his/her signature. The employee should be informed that his/her signature indicates receipt of a copy of the reprimand letter, but that does not necessarily mean that he/she agrees with its contents. If the employee refuses to or is unable to sign the reprimand, a witness, preferably another supervisor, should verify that the employee has received a copy of the reprimand.
Written reprimands will be removed from an employee’s permanent file and placed in a confidential file in the Human Resources Department if the employee has performed satisfactorily for a twelve-month period from the date of the last reprimand letter. In unusual circumstances, the department official may request, in writing, that the reprimand be removed from the file prior to the end of the twelve- month period. The reprimand will remain a part of the employee’s record.
The victim is a familiar character in journalism. Most information on victims comes from interviews with victims themselves if they are still alive or from interviews with the bereaved. Thoughtful journalists may pause from time to time to consider why reporters and, probably, readers are so fascinated with the details. The interviewer needs always to remember that victims of crime or tragedy are not there by choice and rarely through any fault of their own. The interviewer should not make things worse for the victim and handle everything carefully and delicately. Some people genuinely welcome the chance to talk about the death of somebody close to them, even to a stranger with a notebook, while others may answer questions vaguely, to avoid inaccurate information appearing in the media, or simply refuse.
To the non-journalist, it might sound callous, even manipulative. When we hear there has been a murder or a terrible accident, we expect the media to tell us about the victim-their name, how old they were and something about their character and interests. This information does not always appear in the media and the police or other third parties rarely supply full details. Journalists knocking on the doors of relatives, neighbours and friends will usually obtain such stories.
Clinical & Psychological Interviews
Clinical interviewing is the most frequently used assessment technique by practitioners in the field, yet it is also one of the most under-researched areas of psychological assessment. The complexities and dynamics common to conducting interviews with children, parents, and teachers should be discussed in a clear and comprehensive manner. Research should be done prior to these interviews to help practitioners address the social and emotional barriers of the people suffering. The process of clinical interviewing must take note of showing how to use assessment data in planning informative clinical interviews.
Following is an example of the form that should be obtained before interviewing a patient regarding his clinical and psychological progress in a particular hospital:
Hospital Department of Psychology Intake Diagnostic Assessment Form
Interviewing is really an effective but highly complicated tool of selection. The process of interviewing is an oral examination with all its variations. The written examinations cannot trace the personal qualities, behavior, habits and character traits of the candidate. So in order to find out a suitable candidate, the interviewer has to seek more information about the candidate through interview techniques.
Also, the other objective is to impart complete and accurate information about the job and its terms and conditions. The employment interview is usually observed in terms of its long-range effects on the employer, employee and the organization.
The major source of information regarding the personality and background of the applicant is the observation of the candidate’s non-verbal reactions and his general behavior during the interview. The information sources of secondary importance would be to get all the essential information about the applicant’s performance and competence from his previous employer or from his associates. The information collected from other sources before the interview must be checked face-to-face with t he applicant himself.
The applicant may appear well qualified and eligible on the papers of application, but it needs to be verified during the interview. The non-verbal reactions of the interviewee to the variety of questions asked by the interviewer may give clue to the applicant’s personality features such as loyalty, honesty, self-confidence, maturity, hard work, etc.
Various Types of Selection Interviews
Employing a new candidate for a company is very difficult for the interviewer. Because in this job market competitors are increased and new interview methods are introduced. There are many types of interviews. If you attended any interview you can realize that you had faced the given below interview types.
Face to Face interview
Most of the interviews are face to face interviews. This is also known traditional interview in which job seekers meet the employers in face to face. Whether you are fresher or experienced you are in need to attend the interview. The advantage of the traditional interview is that the employer and job seekers can get to know each other about their environment. In face to face interview, they may ask questions like the strengths and weakness of the candidates, expecting salary etc.
Before interview the candidates should have knowledge about the company, their products and financial positions. Also the candidates must be prepared with their resumes. Most employers will ask questions from the resumes. So be prepared and dress neatly while going for interview.
Group interviews are conducted by some large companies for graduates who are all interviewed at one time. They may give some exercises to solve in a group and observes how the candidates react with other people. The group interview will show the candidates: –
In a group interview, you should express your opinion confidently while also allowing others to speak. Do not interrupt while other candidates speak. After the interview, send at least one thank you letter to the head of the committee.
A structured interview is a type of interview that is utilized by many large organizations. This interview is especially popular when there is more than one of the same position available within the organization. In a structured interview, every applicant for the position is asked the same questions as every other applicant applying for the position. A structured interview may contain standard interview questions, behavioral interview questions, or a combination of the two.
In a behavioral interview, candidates are asked to explain their skills, experience, activities, hobbies, school projects, family life, etc. to examine your past behaviour. The purpose of this type of interview is to predict the candidate’s future based on past experiences. This interview is done to observe the candidates willingness in learning, willingness to travel, self-confidence and Creativity. Listen each question carefully, and give an example that provides an appropriate description of how you demonstrated the desired behaviour.
Telephone interview is a technique used to recruit the candidates for employment through phone. The main purpose of conducting telephone interview is to reduce the expenses of the out of state or out of town candidates. Telephone interview is also conducted in professional manner as like other interviews. During telephone interview you have to sell yourself only through your voice and confidence in speech. At the last, if you don’t have confirm information, be sure to ask for the interviewer’s exact title and name spelling, along with a street or email address, so that you can send a thank you note. This method is used to obtain additional information about a candidate’s skills and experience than can be obtain from the application or resume.
In this method, you never know when a company is going to call and you may not be prepared for the interview at that time. This will become one of the advantages for the company to know your capability and this situation makes them to judge you. Most of the companies use this method to eliminate the candidates who don’t have essential skills, knowledge, education etc. Candidates who are capable for the required position will attend the next level face to face interview.
Telephone interview is part of the selection criteria to select the consultant or contractor. Ninety percent of the time, clients or vendors short list the candidates based on the telephone interview. A successful telephone interview will usually lead to a personal interview. The telephone interview can be classified into two types.
HR Interview: The main objective of this interview is to get the technical interview or invited to an in-person interview. This interview is to determine the person’s personality and team work. Warm up your voice and vocal cord- it may help to make you sound more confident, firm and pleasant. Your voice tells many things about you.
Technical Interview: The goal of technical interview is to know about your technical skill set.
Organizations opt for telephonic interview when there are lots of applications for a particular post and there is an urgency to fill a post or when a candidate resides far away from the position of interview. Candidates find telephonic interview comfortable because it’s not face to face. You need not dress yourself up and can have all the information ready on your table while you talk. But you need to make sure that your tone depicts professionalism and zest. It all depends on your voice projection.
When a group of interviewers (maybe from different departments) together interview a candidate, it’s called panel interview. Panel interviews are quite common in various IT corporate and during the admission process of any management course. Interviewers ask random question one at a time and then evaluate their answers. This kind of interview helps the company to evaluate a candidate based on his interaction, interpersonal skill and multi-tasking. The results from a panel interview are more dependable as compared to other types because a decision is taken collectively by a group of interviewers.
In Panel interviews or Committee interviews, candidates will meet several higher authorities and this method is used to hire for advanced positions. Questions may be asked by all panel members and you can expect any type of critical questions from them. Try to answer for all questions and be sure to impress all of the interviewers.
The Panel members may be:
Make eye contact with each member of the panel while you answering the question. Preparing best before the interview will succeed you in this type of interview.
Stress interview creates discomfort in you and the main purpose of stress interview is to give you stress and difficult situation. This type of interview is to test the candidate’s ability to deal with stress situations. The interviewers may try to introduce stress by asking continuous questions without giving time to think and answer the questions. Starting, you might be asked to wait in the waiting room for an hour before the interview. The interviewer might openly challenge your believes or judgment. You might be called upon to perform an impossible task on convincing the interviewer to exchange. Answer each question as calm as you can when it comes.
An exit interview is typically a meeting between at least one representative from a company’s human resources (HR) department and a departing employee. The HR representative might ask the employee questions while taking notes, asks the employee to complete a questionnaire, or both. Human resources departments conduct exit interviews (also called exit surveys) to gather data for improving working conditions and retaining employees. However, a hidden purpose is to help employers avoid costly litigation down the road, caused by “disgruntled” employees. In other words, comments and the notes an HR representative takes during exit interview might be used against an employee in court, should an employee decide to sue the former employer.
Naturally, the decision whether or not to participate in an exit interview is ultimately up to the employee. However, there are varying opinions about whether or not you should participate. Some career experts think one should, because, although it doesn’t help you much, it helps a sincere employer improve working conditions for remaining employees while other career experts question the usefulness of an exit interview. Some things to consider before participating in an exit interview are listed below.
Preparation with reference to welcome, introduction and thanks
Stages of a Typical Interview
Successful interviewing requires preparation and practice. Good preparation includes these steps:
Step 1: Conduct a careful self-assessment, a review of your resume, and an objective evaluation of your qualifications, skills, interests, and abilities. Think about the skills you have developed both inside and outside of the classroom and how they could contribute to the position for which you are interviewing for. Develop a list of personal accomplishments and skills that you can cite clearly and concisely during your interviews.
Step 2: Research the interview process. Read books and watch videotapes. Attend an interview workshop, set up a mock interview with a Center staff member, and practice with friends, family, and rehearse in front of a mirror.
Step 3: Research the field in general as well as prospective employers. Learn all you can about the company and the position for which you will be interviewing. Obtain specific company literature prior to an interview. If it is impossible for you to obtain information, you can still interview successfully if you have a realistic and confident knowledge of your strengths and a thorough knowledge of the field, which is attainable by reading generic career literature and acquiring information from similar organizations.
Step 4: Develop an interview strategy. Based on your research on the company, identify the qualifications and criteria it will look for in an “ideal” candidate. With these in mind, determine the five most important points about you that you want the interviewer to know by the end of the interview. These can be specific qualities, accomplishments, experiences, or career goals. They should be determined by your distinct set of qualifications and match the company’s needs.
Step 5: Prepare a list of questions to ask the interviewer, avoiding those that could be answered by reading the company’s information.
This demonstrates that:
Step 6: Close the interview in a professional manner. Thank the interviewer for his or her time and consideration. Briefly reiterate your interest in the position and the company, and concisely summarize your skills and career objectives as they apply to the position. If the interviewer has not mentioned the next steps in the interview process, ask if there is anything else you should do, such as providing names of references, completing an application, or taking a test. Ask about the time frame for completing the search, when you might expect to hear from the company, and whether they would prefer to call you or be called by you. Confirm the interviewer’s full name, title, and business address. Send a thank you note within 24 hours.